Deming, the Father of Quality Evolution: A Total Quality Management Essay
After World War I, Dr Deming developed a theory, Total Quality Management, that focuses on improving the quality of the companies' productions processes.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a method that always works towards improving the quality and performance of an organization to meet or exceed the expectations of customers. Any given company or organization can integrate quality-related functions such as quality design, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement to gain customer loyalty and trust.
Origin of the Theory
Dr William Albert Deming developed Statistical Quality Control theory after World War I. It provided statistical guidelines to Japanese companies for the sampling of manufactured items, and then testing them for quality under the notion of removing any variation in the production process. However, failed quality improvement for manufactured products after World War II made the Japanese Union of Scientists to invite Dr Deming to train engineers on improving quality. As a result, most companies adopted the theory, and by 1970, most organizations saw the need for company-wide quality control, ranging from the management to the employees; hence, Total Quality Management.
Despite originating from the manufacturing industry, a variety of other sectors are now using the TQM principles which mostly focus on long-term objectives that will create a unified vision for the company’s systemic change. Applying the guidelines to all the departments of an organization ensures that the employees work towards the set goals, thus improving each area's functionality.
Principles of TQM
There are eight principles that Dr Deming formulated to guide all the industries incorporating TQM for quality production.
- Customer Focus
This principle focuses on customers who ultimately determine the quality of products and services. Customers only become satisfied if the products they pay for meet or exceed their expectations. It is, therefore, the work of the company's management to ensure that the organizations align their objectives with the needs of customers. They should also manage customer relationships. Customer focus increases sales and creates intense customer loyalty.
- Total Employee Commitment
All employees need to understand the goals and vision of the company as well as have the confidence to present optimized performance.
- Process Approach
The management and the employees need to adhere to the set steps. This ensures consistency and faster production and a substantial focus on success and improvement.
- Integrated Systems
Every individual and department should have an understanding of the set policies, objectives and standards that will help the company beat competition. The achievement of this principle depends on the interconnection of various departments.
- Strategic and Systemic Approach
In this case, the management of the various development and production processes is as a system of procedures aimed at increasing efficiency.
- Continual Improvement
A company should always find a way to continue improving the quality of products and services to maintain customer satisfaction.
- Fact-based Decision Making
The management needs to gather information and analyze it before making decisions. This will help in addressing issues that customers face.
The management should ensure that there is an effective communication plan that will inform all people of the organization's programs and strategies aimed at achieving the set goals.
All companies in the world need to incorporate TQM in their operations. However, the success of every organization will depend on the effectiveness of implementing the techniques.