Chapter Five Assignment
1. Read Chapter 5 Operant Conditioning: Learning the Outcome of Behaviors
2. Complete one of the following essays (60 Points)
Exercise A. Optional Topic: Create Your Own
For every section of the course after the first one, you have the option of designing your own exercise rather than completing one that I have specified. This serves two important purposes. First, it allows people to work on topics about which they have a special interest. Second, it allows people to use free time to work ahead and prepare for unusually busy times or emergencies that might arise. The steps involved in completing this optional exercise are:
·Read the assigned section of the text and identify topics you find interesting.
·Search the Web and locate at least two sites that provide useful information on that topic (or something reasonably closely related).
·Write an essay of at least 800 words on the material that you have found. Your essay must be relevant to the current section of the course and must extend the material presented in the text. You may provide additional information on a topic covered in the text or you may provide information on a topic or issue that the text doesn’t cover at all. Remember that the purpose of your essay is to further educate your classmates on something important and relevant to the current topic. You will not receive credit for simply restating or explaining the material in the text.
·Include the URLs to all sites that you use at the end of your essay, exactly as you would put references at the end of any paper. Your URLs must work! I will test every URL you cite and there will be severe penalties for any that don’t work. I strongly suggest that you use copy and paste rather than trying to type even short and simple URLs.
·Post your essay with a descriptive title.
Exercise B: Pros and Cons for the Use of Spanking and Corporal Punishment
You have probably heard stories about weird psychologists who don’t believe in spanking or punishing their children. These stories are somewhat accurate, as most psychologists truly do believe that punishment should very rarely be used to control behavior. Nevertheless, many parents continue to spank their children and corporal punishment is used in many schools. A number of interesting Web sites concerned with the use of punishment are indicated below, and you will be able to find many more quite easily.
Your task for this exercise is to write an essay of at least 800 words on the use of punishment. Be sure to cover the concept of punishment in general, why many people oppose the use of punishment, and the procedures they advocate as a more desirable alternative for affecting behavior. You might also wish to include material on situations where punishment is called for. If so, consider including a section on guidelines for the use of punishment when it is called for. Be sure to reference and provide URLs for all of the material you use.
Exercise C: The Premack Principle and Beyond
The Premack Principle and the response-disequilibrium hypothesis, along with the considerable work on choice behavior, have produced a major shift in the way people think about reinforcement. These approaches have lead to more of an emphasis on behavioral regulation and away from questions such as how a reinforcer strengthens a specific behavior. Theorists have integrated numerous concepts from economics into their thinking and an entire new area called “behavioral economics” has emerged. This new approach has been useful in changing a wide variety of behaviors and has altered the thinking of many people on topics such as drug addictions and risky behavior in general. Your task in this exercise is to write the usual essay of at least 800 words on the general topic of how the concept of reinforcement has been changed by the work of Premack and those who followed him. Points your essay should cover include:
ü A brief description of the Premack Principle,
ü A brief description of refinements suggested by the response-disequilibrium hypothesis, including the concept of “bliss point,”
ü A discussion of some of the ways economic theory has been associated with behavioral regulation (or behavioral economics), and
ü A discussion of how behavioral economics has changed thinking about either drug addiction or risky behavior.
Several sites that deal with these issues are provided below, but be warned that some of these are long and complex and you will need to dig to locate the material appropriate for your use. Of course, you probably can find many other sites in addition. As always, be sure to list all of the sites you use at the end of your essay.
Exercise D: Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction
Psychologists have been heavily involved in studying the development of various addictions, and behavioral theory offers an explanation of drug addiction that holds up well when tested by research studies. However, this exercise concerns the behavioral approach to treatingaddictions, specifically, the community reinforcement approach (CRA) mentioned in the text. Several links to sources on CRA are shown below and you can easily find more if you are interested. Read about this approach and then write the usual essay of at least 800 words at a level appropriate for a bright undergraduate student enrolled in a learning course. Be sure to at least touch upon each of the following points in your essay.
ü What do advocates of the CRA approach believe causes addictions and how does this view differ from the more common view?
ü What is involved in a treatment program using the CRA approach?
ü What basic learning principles are involved in CRA and how are they involved?
ü How does the CRA approach differ from other more common treatment approaches?
ü What evidence can you present to convince your audience that CRA is the treatment of choice?
Mangaian, Dan and Victorian Americana study on human sexuality
Sexual Studies from groups such as Mangaian, Dan, and Victorian American, impacts us a great deal of knowledge about human sexuality. For instance, Mangaian puts human sexuality into a free and open discourse which may be considered a taboo in many societies. The studies offer sets of analytical skills and also impact a sense of civic responsibility. They also teach us that as part of the different societies, human should be allowed to explore and discover their sexuality. Studying the Victorian and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies encourages us to develop a coherent set of personal values based that enables them to respect ourselves and others. We also learn that human sexuality, orientation, and behavior are universal but are influenced by our environments.
Alfred Kinsey’s book,” Sexual Behaviour in the Human Female,” may have shocked the world in 1953 due to its explicit revelations, but it has remained significant in sexuality studies. Nonetheless, he is also celebrated for the changes that his work brought to women. Previously, sex and sexuality research had not gotten into the mainstream of academic credibility. Alfred broke the perception that people took their reputations in their hands if they attempted to pursue it (Brown and Fee, 2003).
The difference between Menstrual and Ovarian Cycles
The menstrual cycle in female sexuality is the physiological process that occurs in women who are fertile for the purpose of fertilization and reproduction. On the other hand, the ovarian cycle refers to the series of changes that take place in the ovary that precedes follicle to matures, leading to the ovum is shed and then the corpus luteum develops. The main diction between the ovarian cycle and the menstrual cycle is that one is a subset of the other. An ovarian cycle occurs in the ovaries as part of the menstrual cycle.