Subject: Psychology and Education
Topic: Skill Memory
Language: English (U.S.)
Pages: 3
Chapter Eight Assignment 1. Read Chapter 8 Skill Memory 2. Complete the one of the following essays (60 Points) Exercise A. Optional Topic: Create Your Own For every section of the course after the first one, you have the option of designing your own exercise rather than completing one that I have specified. This serves two important purposes. First, it allows people to work on topics about which they have a special interest. Second, it allows people to use free time to work ahead and prepare for unusually busy times or emergencies that might arise. The steps involved in completing this optional exercise are: • ·Read the assigned section of the text and identify topics you find interesting. • ·Search the Web and locate at least two sites that provide useful information on that topic (or something reasonably closely related). • ·Write an essay of at least 800 words on the material that you have found. Your essay must be relevant to the current section of the course and must extend the material presented in the text. You may provide additional information on a topic covered in the text or you may provide information on a topic or issue that the text doesn’t cover at all. Remember that the purpose of your essay is to further educate your classmates on something important and relevant to the current topic. You will not receive credit for simply restating or explaining the material in the text. • ·Include the URLs to all sites that you use at the end of your essay, exactly as you would put references at the end of any paper. Your URLs must work! I will test every URL you cite and there will be severe penalties for any that don’t work. I strongly suggest that you use copy and paste rather than trying to type even short and simple URLs. • ·Post your essay with a descriptive title. Exercise B: Outliers versus Early Exposure On page 308 of Chapter 8 the argument of expertise as a result of talent versus practice is introduced. Some theorists purport that 10,000 hours of practice makes someone an expert. Other theorists have found that mastery of skills at an early age leads to expertise. In an essay of 800 words, describe to an uninformed college student how one becomes an expert. Provide evidence for which ever perspective (practice vs. early exposure) you choose to take. Here are some links to get you started: Exercise C: Sports, Motor Movements and Perceptual Learning In the new book, The Sports Gene by David Epstein, the author describes how baseball players use anticipatory cues to hit balls: "... This is a learned perceptual skill. And in fact, if you do a digital simulation, which some scientists have done, where you delete the pitcher's shoulder, [the Los Angeles Angels'] Albert Pujols becomes me, basically. You have to delete a little more than the shoulder to get him to that novice level, but he basically becomes a novice if you do that. And you can do the same thing with tennis players." Regarding basketball, the author has this to say: “In fact there are some brain imaging studies that suggest that good rebounders are also looking for anticipatory cues, that they're actually mentally rehearsing what they're watching a shooter do in an attempt to predict where the ball's going to go.” Read the Web sites listed below (and any additional ones you find), and then write an essay of at least 800 words to a bright but uniformed college student explaining current thinking on what factors affect one’s athletic abilities. Is it genetics? Learned motor skills? Excellent perception? Here are some links to get you started: Exercise D: Apraxia On page 336 of your text, apraxia is defined as “problems in the coordination of purposeful, skilled movement.” Read the Web sites listed below (and any additional ones you find), and then write an essay of at least 800 words to a bright but uniformed college student defining apraxia in adults, explaining the most common causes of apraxia, and describing current trends in the treatment of apraxia. Since these treatments are behavioral, please be sure to tie the treatment information into the conditioning we learned about earlier in the course.