The Hawthorne effect is a reaction in which individuals or organizations modify their
behavior and improve certain aspects because of heightened awareness of being under
observation. The Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory posits that there are certain aspects of the
workplace that influence job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors influence job
dissatisfaction (Jones, 2010) .
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a psychological theory about human need proposed by
Abraham Maslow in 1943. The hierarchy is portrayed in the form of an upright pyramid with the
need for self-actualization at the top and the most fundamental needs at the bottom (Jones, 2010) .
The needs in order of most basic to least basic are physiological needs, safety needs,
belonging/love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization.
Theory X and theory Y define distinct set of assumptions that managers have about people.
Theory X assumptions are that most people dislike work and will strive to avoid it, because of
this they must be pushed to get work done; these people have no ambition and avoid
responsibility. Theory Y assumptions posit that people find work a source of satisfaction, they
exercise self-control and their full potential is underutilized (Jones, 2010) .
Jones. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.