Subject: Business and Management
Language: English (U.S.)
Pages: 1
Chapter 5 discusses organizational theory. Explain briefly the Hawthorne effect and define hygiene and motivation factors. Also, discuss Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and define theory X and Y.

Hawthorne effect

The Hawthorne effect is a reaction in which individuals or organizations modify their

behavior and improve certain aspects because of heightened awareness of being under

observation. The Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory posits that there are certain aspects of the

workplace that influence job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors influence job

dissatisfaction (Jones, 2010) .

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a psychological theory about human need proposed by

Abraham Maslow in 1943. The hierarchy is portrayed in the form of an upright pyramid with the

need for self-actualization at the top and the most fundamental needs at the bottom (Jones, 2010) .

The needs in order of most basic to least basic are physiological needs, safety needs,

belonging/love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization.

Theory X and theory Y define distinct set of assumptions that managers have about people.

Theory X assumptions are that most people dislike work and will strive to avoid it, because of

this they must be pushed to get work done; these people have no ambition and avoid

responsibility. Theory Y assumptions posit that people find work a source of satisfaction, they

exercise self-control and their full potential is underutilized (Jones, 2010) .


Jones. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.