Chapter 11 – Language
1. What is the lexicon? Approximately how many words does the lexicon contain?
Lexicon refers to words that a person understands; the vocabulary of a person. Linguistics describe it as the total morphemes available in a given language. On average, people know about 50,000 words.
2. What is the difference between a phoneme and a morpheme?
A phoneme is the shortest segment of speech that, if it changes, alter the meaning of a word E.G. bit contains /b/, /i/ and /t/, while a morpheme is the smallest unit in a language that has a definable meaning e.g. ‘truck’ has one morpheme, ‘sitting room’ has two morphemes, ‘Sitting’ and ‘room’.
3. What is meant by word frequency? What is the word frequency effect? How does word frequency affect performance in the lexical decision task?
Word frequency is the relative usage of words in a particular language. The effect of word frequency is that we react easier to high-frequency words like 'baby' than low-frequency words like 'hike.' A lexical decision task is a procedure used by psychologists to measure how quickly a person can classify stimuli as words and nonwords. A common effect experienced is the frequency of words; words with high frequency are recognized faster.
4. What is the difference between syntax and semantics?
The syntax is the different formal rules used for combining words into constructive statements or sentences in a language while semantics is the meaning of words as they are utilized in a sentence; these are rules that define the meaning of a statement depending on the phrase used.
5. What is parsing?
This is the mental grouping of words in a sentence to make a phrase. It is the process of analyzing a string of words in a language and ensuring that they conform to the formal rules of grammar.
6. Describe Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia.
Aphasia is a type of impairment that might occur when one gets a stroke that affects the left side of the brain. It leads to language impairment. Broca's aphasia occurs when the stroke injures the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere. The person can understand speech but lacks the ability to produce any speech her or himself. Wernicke's aphasia occurs when stoke injures the temporal and the parietal lobe of the left hemisphere. The patient affected can produce speech but can not understand the speech of others.
7. Where are Broca's area and Wernicke's area located? How do the two areas work during speech production?
Broca’s Area is located in the frontal lobe. It is responsible for the movements that are required for a speech as it is the motor speech area. The Wernicke’s are located in the parietal and temporal lobe. It is the sensory area and hence responsible for understanding speech and using the right words to express the thoughts we are having
Chapter 13 – Reasoning
1. Define decisions and reasoning.
The decision is the process of making a resolution, choice or conclusion made after some consideration. The reasoning is the process of drawing conclusions through thinking in a logical manner.
2. What is the difference between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning is the logical process of making a conclusion based on various premises that are assumed to be true. Inductive reasoning is the logical process in which multiple premises. Where some or all can be considered true, are combined to make an accurate conclusion. It can be described as reasoning based on observation.
3. What three things does inductive reasoning depend on?
- Number of observations
- Representativeness of observations
- the quality of observations
4. What are the parts of a syllogism?
It is made up of a minor premise, major premise, and a conclusion.
5. What is the difference between the validity of a syllogism and the truth of a syllogism?
The validity of a syllogism occurred when the conclusion follows from the premise, while the truth os a syllogism depends on the truth of the two premises.
6. Describe the Wason four-card problem.
It is a logic puzzle that was created by Peter Wason in 1966 that is famously used in the study of deductive reasoning.
7. How does the evolutionary approach to cognition explain performance on the Wason four-card problem?
The ability of two people to cooperate in a way that is beneficial to both of them is an important aspect of the human behavior. It is governed by the principles of natural selection.
8. What is the availability heuristic? What is the representativeness heuristic?
The availability heuristic is events that are easily remembered are judged as being more probable that those that are less remembered. Illusory correlations happen when correlation appears to exist, but it does not.