Subject: English & Literature
Topic: SCHOLARLY WRITING
Language: English (U.S.)
Pages: 3
Instructions
Impact of World War II on American Women The Second World War helped in revolutionizing gender roles in America. Prior to the war, less than 25% of American women worked outside the home. However, the large number of male enlistments into the war nearly crippled America’s factories and economy. To avoid such a tragedy, a campaign known as ‘Rosie the Riveter’ was introduced (Bryant, 2009). The purpose of the campaign was to stress that it was a patriotic duty of American women to join the workforce. The campaign saw a dramatic increase of women in the workforce. Female participation in the workforce increased from a palsy 25% to 37% between 1940 and 1945. By 1945, nearly one out of every four married women was working outside the home. During this time, more than 350,000 women enlisted in various factions of the American Armed Forces. The Women’s Army Corps was instituted in 1942 held more than 200 non-combatant jobs and participated in every war theatre. The aviation industry saw the most dramatic rise in female workers. The members of the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots became the first women to fly American aircrafts in the country’s history (Bryant, 2009). Approximately 310,000 women joined the aviation industry, representing 65% of the industry’s total workforce. Before the war, women represented only 1% of the industry’s total workforce. The war ended in 1945 but it had far-reaching effects on the American women. Women gained confidence, strength, and mobility from working in factories and in the Armed Forces. They had proven to themselves that they had much more to offer than what society had dictated was their limit. The war was a way for average women to venture out of the home where they had been confined. Now that they could work, and perhaps offer better services than men offer, they could now demand for better salaries and more opportunities for promotion. The War was a form of emancipation for women folk in America. References Bryant, J. (2009, Feb 3). How War Changed The Role of Women in the United States. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved on 31/3/2016 from http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2002/3/02.03.09.x.html

Scholarly Writing

Assignment 1:

           The central research problem for the article is to understand how diversionary goals in schools can affect their academic performance. The premise is that diversionary goals in any organization will lead to inefficiency. The authors wanted to investigate whether this phenomenon holds true for American schools. The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of investment in athletics by American schools on the academic performance of said schools. The authors discovered that academic performance and athletic prowess are diversionary goals. Institutions that spend a lot of money on athletic equipment and programs usually have lower academic performances compared to schools that do not invest heavily in their athletics department.

           The authors of the article have a strong scholarly voice and the article itself is an excellent example of scholarly writing. The authors have incorporated a lot of relevant evidence to support their arguments against significant investment in athletic programs. They provide distinct examples of how over-indulgence in athletic programs can significantly hamper academic progress in different school e.g. Littleton, Colorado. The scholarly voice in the article is superior because it is formal, does not include biases or opinions, and the authors use third person to refer to the subjects of the articles, themselves, and their readers.   

 

Assignment 2:

The paragraph talks about the proliferation of personal computers into nearly every single home. The target audience for this paragraph is individuals whose lives have been transformed by personal computers. Specifically, the text is targeting individuals who use the personal computer for learning purposes. The paragraph is appropriate to a section of the target audience because it is relatable and realistic to the individuals who are concerned about personal computers. However, the appropriateness to the target audience is constrained because it does not encompass people who cannot yet afford to purchase the personal computers.  

           The author opines that there should no longer be any discussion on the lines of affordability of personal computers. He even cites an article by the Business Week that claims more than 80% of high school students in the country have access to personal computers. He references the article as an attempt to prove that money is no longer an issue when it comes to purchasing personal computers.

He is also of the opinion that families can save enough money to buy the equipment. The opinion demonstrates a clear bias against poor families. Most families from poor backgrounds do not have sufficient resources to meet their daily needs, let alone save enough to purchase a personal computer. In such families, personal computers are a luxury that they can opt to live without in order to continue surviving on their meager resources.

The quality of evidence provided is dismal because it merely states the fact that many students have access to personal computers without extrapolating on why this is the case. Concrete evidence should have given the reader reasons behind the increase in personal computer use among students. Possible reasons would have included higher average income for families or a reduction in the price of personal computers making them more affordable to most families across the country.

From the analysis, the author of the paragraph has demonstrated a weakness in scholarly writing because of his poor choice of evidence, biased language, and a failure to encompass his entire target audience. In addition, the paragraph is more of an opinion than scholarly text. The use of a rhetoric question in the text also demonstrates the writer’s lack of a scholarly voice.

Assignment 3:

           An effective scholarly voice is one whereby the language used by the author is clear, precise, and formal. There should be no ambiguous statements and the reader should be able to infer the meaning of the statements easily. Formal language entails the exclusion of contractions, biased statements, second person pronouns, slang, and rhetorical questions. Furthermore, an effective scholarly voice is always objective and presents all sides of an argument in a natural flow to make it easier for the readers to understand and form their opinions on the subject matter.

           Many people confuse scholarly writing with academic writing. The latter form of writing is in fulfillment of higher education requirements. On the other hand, scholarly writing passes specialized information to a target audience of fellow scholars. Scholarly authors carry out scholarly writing to pass information to fellow scholars who are in the same field of expertise.

           Scholarly writing often involves the use of complex sentence structures and technical terms because the target audience is a group of professionals with similar levels of expertise and knowledge on the subject matter. The tone of scholarly writing is often more serious and the authors refer to themselves, their subjects, and their readers in third person.

           The main purpose of scholarly writing is to advance knowledge within a particular field. Scholarly writing can be a challenge to the beliefs within a field of study by providing alternative theories to the ones in existence. It can also be an instrument for adding on to the pre-existing knowledge within a certain field.

           The tone and substance of any piece of writing will be dependent upon the intended audience. Factors such as the relative age of the members of the audience, their interest in the subject, and their knowledge of the subject will determine whether the author will have a serious tone, as well as how technical his explanations to the readers will be.

           Practice is essential when it comes to developing a scholarly voice and honing scholarly skills. It is also imperative that the student reads as many scholarly articles as possible to understand scholarly voice and writing.